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Farm to Cup!




                                         COFFEE FARMS




Growing Conditions
All coffee grown in India are grown in shade and commonly with two tiers of shade. Often inter-cropped with spices such as cardamomcinnamonclove, and nutmeg, the coffees gain aromatics from the inter-cropping, storage, and handling functions. Growing altitudes range between 1,000 m (3,300 ft) to 1,500 m (4,900 ft) above sea level for Arabica (premier coffee), and 500 m (1,600 ft) to 1,000 m (3,300 ft) for Robusta (though of lower quality, it is robust to environment conditions).Ideally, both Arabica and Robusta are planted in well drained soil conditions that favour rich organic matter that is slightly acidic (pH 6.0–6.5). However, India's coffees tend to be moderately acidic which can lead to either a balanced and sweet taste, or a listless and inert one. Slopes of Arabica tend to be gentle to moderate, while Robusta slopes are gentle to fairly level.

Blooming and maturing
Blooming is the time when coffee plants bloom with white flowers which last for about 3–4 days (termed "evanescent" period) before they mature into seeds. When coffee plantations are in full bloom it is a delightful sight to watch. The time period between blooming and maturing of the fruit varies appreciably with the variety and the climate; for the Arabica, it is about seven months, and for the Robusta, about nine months. The fruit is gathered by hand when it is fully ripe and red-purple in colour.

Climatic conditions
Ideal climatic conditions to grow coffee are related to temperature and rainfall; temperatures in the range of 73 °F (23 °C) and 82 °F (28 °C) with rainfall incidence in the range of 60–80 inches (1.5–2.0 m) followed by a dry spell of 2–3 months suit the Arabica variety. Cold temperatures closer to freezing conditions are not suitable to grow coffee. Where the rainfall is less than 40 inches (1.0 m), providing irrigation facilities is essential. In the tropical region of the south Indian hills, these conditions prevail leading to coffee plantations flourishing in large numbers. Relative humidity for Arabica ranges 70–80% while for Robusta it ranges 80–90%.




Processing
Processing of coffee in India is accomplished using two methods, dry processing and wet processing. Dry processing is the traditional method of drying in the sun which is favoured for its flavour producing characteristics. In the wet processing method, coffee beans are fermented and washed, which is the preferred method for improved yields. As to the wet processing, the beans are subject to cleaning to segregate defective seeds. The beans of different varieties and sizes are then blended to derive the best flavour. The next procedure is to roast either through roasters or individual roasters. Then the roasted coffee is ground to appropriate sizes.


                                                                   SUN DRY METHOD


            

                                                                         WET METHOD

Coffee Roasting

Roasting coffee transforms the chemical and physical properties of green coffee beans into roasted coffee products. The roasting process is what produces the characteristic flavor of coffee by causing the green coffee beans to change in taste. Unroasted beans contain similar if not higher levels of acids, protein, sugars, and caffeine as those that have been roasted, but lack the taste of roasted coffee beans due to the Maillard and other chemical reactions that occur during roasting.

The coffee-roasting process follows coffee processing and precedes coffee brewing. It consists essentially of sorting, roasting, cooling, and packaging but can also include grinding in larger-scale roasting houses. In larger operations, bags of green coffee beans are hand- or machine-opened, dumped into a hopper, and screened to remove debris. The green beans are then weighed and transferred by belt or pneumatic conveyor to storage hoppers. From the storage hoppers, the green beans are conveyed to the roaster. Initially, the process is endothermic (absorbing heat), but at around 175 °C (347 °F) it becomes exothermic (giving off heat). For the roaster, this means that the beans are heating themselves and an adjustment of the roaster's heat source might be required. At the end of the roasting cycle, the roasted beans are dumped from the roasting chamber and air cooled with a draft inducer.

During the roasting process, coffee beans tend to go through a weight loss of about 15 to 18% due to the loss of water and volatile compounds. Although the beans experience a weight loss, the size of the beans double after the roasting process due to the physical expansion of the cellulose structure which facilitates the release of carbon dioxide, volatile organic compounds, and water (in the form of steam).

Unroasted
75 degrees green coffee.png22 °C (72 °F), Green Beans
Green coffee as it arrives at the dock. The beans can be stored for approximately 12–18 months in a climate controlled environment before quality loss is noticeable.
330 degrees drying coffee.png165 °C (329 °F), Drying Phase
During the drying phase the beans are undergoing an endothermic process until their moisture content is evaporated, signifying first crack.
Light Roast
385 degrees cinnamon roast coffee.png196 °C (385 °F), Cinnamon Roast
A very light roast level which is immediately at first crack. Sweetness is underdeveloped, with prominent toasted grain, grassy flavors, and sharp acidity prominent.
400 degrees new england roast coffee.png205 °C (401 °F), New England Roast
Moderate light brown, but still mottled in appearance. A preferred roast for some specialty roasters, highlights origin characteristics as well as complex acidity.
Medium Roast
410 degrees american roast coffee.png210 °C (410 °F), American Roast
Medium light brown, developed during first crack. Acidity is slightly muted, but origin character is still preserved.
425 degrees city roast coffee.png219 °C (426 °F), City Roast
Medium brown, common for most specialty coffee. Good for tasting origin character, although roast character is noticeable.
Dark Roast
440 degrees full city roast coffee.png225 °C (437 °F), Full City Roast
Medium-dark brown with dry to tiny droplets or faint patches of oil, roast character is prominent. At the beginning of second crack.
450 degrees vienna roast coffee.png230 °C (446 °F), Vienna Roast
Moderate dark brown with light surface oil, more bittersweet, caramel flavor, acidity muted. In the middle of second crack. Any origin characteristics have become eclipsed by roast at this level.
460 degrees french roast coffee.png240 °C (464 °F), French Roast
Dark brown, shiny with oil, burnt undertones, acidity diminished. At the end of second crack. Roast character is dominant, none of the inherent aroma or flavors of the coffee remain.
470 degrees italian roast coffee.png245 °C (473 °F), Italian Roast
Nearly black and shiny, burnt tones become more distinct, acidity nearly eliminated, thin body.

COFFEE BREWING

Brewed coffee is made by pouring hot water onto ground coffee beans, then allowing to brew. There are several methods for doing this, including using a filter, a percolator, and a French press. Terms used for the resulting coffee often reflect the method used, such as drip brewed coffeefiltered coffeepour-over coffeeimmersion brewed coffee, or simply coffee. Water seeps through the ground coffee, absorbing its constituent chemical compounds, and then passes through a filter. The used coffee grounds are retained in the filter with the brewed coffee collecting in a vessel such as a carafe or pot.


In South India, filter coffee brewed at home is a part of local culture. Most houses have a stainless steel coffee filter and most shops sell freshly roasted and ground coffee beans. 


     










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