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Arabica Coffee


Arabica Coffee ( Coffea arabica L.)




                                                                    Arabica coffee plant

Popularly known as 'Arabica coffee', it is a tetraploid species i.e., 4n=44 chromosomes.
Under natural conditions Arabica grows like a small tree, but under regulated conditions looks like a bush. the plants produce profuse branches and the matured leaves are dark green in colour while the young (leaf tip} are either green or bronze. the flower buds are produced in clusters in the axils of leaves at each node.
Under South Indian conditions, initiation and subsequent growth of flower buds takes place from September to March. Water is essential for flowering and so the blossoms occur 8 to 10 days after showers. Arabica is self fertile. The fertile ovary grows into a fruit in about 8 to 9 months and finally ripens into dark red berries which ranges in number from 10 to 20 per node. Arabica is considered as superior in quality to Robusta with rich flavour and aroma.

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All coffee grown in India are grown in shade and commonly with two tiers of shade. Often inter-cropped with spices such ascardamomcinnamonclove, and nutmeg, the coffees gain aromatics from the inter-cropping, storage, and handling functions. Growing altitudes range between 1,000 m (3,300 ft) to 1,500 m (4,900 ft)above sea level for Arabica(premier coffee), and 500 m (1,600 ft) to 1,000 m (3,300 ft) for Robusta (though of lower quality, it is robust to environment conditions).Ideally, both Arabica and Robusta are planted in well drained soil conditions that favour rich organic matter that is slightly acidic (pH 6.0–6.5). However, India's coffees tend to be moderately acidic which can lead to either a balanced and sweet taste, or a listless and inert one. Slopes of Arabica tend to be gentle to moderate, while Robusta slopes are gentle to fairly level.
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