Arabica Coffee ( Coffea arabica L.)
Arabica coffee plant
Popularly known as 'Arabica coffee', it is a tetraploid species i.e., 4n=44 chromosomes.
Under natural conditions Arabica grows like a small tree, but under regulated conditions looks like a bush. the plants produce profuse branches and the matured leaves are dark green in colour while the young (leaf tip} are either green or bronze. the flower buds are produced in clusters in the axils of leaves at each node.
Under South Indian conditions, initiation and subsequent growth of flower buds takes place from September to March. Water is essential for flowering and so the blossoms occur 8 to 10 days after showers. Arabica is self fertile. The fertile ovary grows into a fruit in about 8 to 9 months and finally ripens into dark red berries which ranges in number from 10 to 20 per node. Arabica is considered as superior in quality to Robusta with rich flavour and aroma.